The capital accounts for 40% of illegal dumping in England, with next nine largest cities recording a further 12%, according to data from Defra

The only grave is Essex: how the county became London’s dumping ground

Animal carcasses and armchairs, bathtubs and boilers … and more than 200,000 instances involving black bags of rubbish – fly-tipping is on the rise again across England, costing its 10 biggest cities more than £32m in cleanup and enforcement costs in 2014/15.

Over that period there were 16 dumping incidents recorded per 1,000 population in England – but the rate in London was more than two-and-a-half times higher, and both Manchester and Liverpool experienced twice as much dumping per head than the national average.

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Source: Guardian Environment